Table Tennis is a serious sport with potential for injury when playing a game or a match. These factors can make the difference between success and failure at top level. The mechanics seemed quite complex and the whole set-up fairly detailed using your 'whole body'. The serve can vary a great deal but the service rules and natural laws impose certain limitations. Another way is to perform the experiment in a vacuum, though this is a harder to set up. This is one of the big factors in what separates the greats of table tennis, from the top A grade players. Firstly, a very brief introduction to the mathematics that is used to describe Table Tennis. However this is really quite meaningless when you consider that the rules allow a variation of up to 5% in the weight and diameter of the ball and at the most 8% when we are talking about bounce. As you begin to improve as a table tennis player and master the fundamentals, you’ll almost certainly need to think about increasing your power. The basic formulae to be used here are:P = W÷tW = FsF = maa = (v - u)÷t Note: This is usually rearranged to v = u atT = rFNote: When two letters are next to each other it means multiplication. Anyway, this is the Physics and Mathematics of Table Tennis in the Newtonian Universe. The main difference relates to the service rules and the order of play, but there are also some other table tennis doubles rules to … The speed for a long fast serve will be very similar to the speeds when flicking - between 8.5 m/second (30.6 k/hour) straight, to up to 10.0 m/second (36.0 k/hour) on the diagonal. When it’s your turn to serve, toss the ball upwards into the air and hit it with your paddle so it bounces on your side of the table once, then over the net onto your opponent’s side. That is, when a ball is hit hard, you are observing the transfer of Energy from the body of the player to the ball to cause that shot, not Energy itself. After another 0.2 seconds (0.3) the distance is 7.0, so the ball has travelled 4.0 metres (7.0 - 3.0) and the speed is down to around 11 m/second. Bear in mind that the variations to be found in the use of spin, speed, length and placement will often be sufficient to cause problems for opponents and it is important that your players can use the same serve in differing ways and execute differing serves with the same or similar actions. There will also of course be energy losses (a reduction in speed of about 10%). Length is also crucial for defenders, either very long or very short, so that opponents have little opportunity to smash. (Among the top European men because of the increase in the basic minimal speed many now use the BH from the middle or even from the FH side against the serve. As a beginner consistency and accuracy are key. There is spin, which will now be discussed. At 1000 metres air pressure sinks by 12% and at 3000 metres by up to 30%! Different players will for example use rubbers in differing ways and one player will often be capable of getting far more out of a particular rubber than another player would. You can’t use the same color for these two rubbers. However in the case of the short serve one must add the time from the racket contact to the first bounce which will add 0.15 - 0.2 seconds. Questions relating to materials and the differing spins and effects can be rather more complicated as the manufacturing companies have not tried to create standardised tests to measure exactly what their products can do. It is particularly important that you establish a pattern with a young player that can grow with the player, (can a sidestep pattern be easily developed into a cross-step?). In the case of a top-spinning ball the force of the spin is at right angles to the speed and the rotational axis and as a result strengthens the downward pull of gravity. The problem can be that you have much less time yourself to study the spin and to react to any strange bounce. By 2025 there should […] In the case of ball/table and ball/passive racket the rotational energy can predominate, dramatically slowing the speed value. After that, this model of the universe starts to break down and you need to go to Quantum Theory and Relativity, which involves FRIGHTENING Mathematics and Physics to use. You need to toss the ball up at least 6.3 inches and hit it as it falls back down to qualify as a legal serve. This has a major impact on both the air resistance and the effect of the spin on the ball in flight. The women’s game is rather faster as they stand closer to the table, hit the ball earlier and flatter. So it is actually added to your velocity, as subtracting a negative number actually means you add the two terms (another mathematical law). It will be interesting to see if this tactic, which has been common amongst the women for many years, will become the norm in the men’s game). The following are a list of safety tips that will help keep you injury free and out on the table. As well as providing something different the purpose is to help make the site self-sufficient, so please feel free to sample these as and when. The initial velocity is something you have no control over, as it is how hard the opposition hits the ball at you. Harder blades and sponges give more speed at the expense of control while softer blades and sponges provide more spin and control as there is a longer contact time on the blade (without gluing you lose between 10 - 20% of the speed and spin). As a physicist and engineer as well as a keen tennis player, I am interested in the role of bio-mechanics in tennis and how it could improve my game of tennis. Do you feel good or not good? For an attacking player the rubber’s task is to preserve the speed as much as possible (a part of the ball’s energy will always be lost against the surface) and at the same time give the player a good chance to create and vary spin during play. However as we have intimated this is extremely difficult in the case of a low over-the-table ball. Potential Energy: E = mghKinetic Energy: E = ½mv2, E = Energym = Massg = The acceleration due to gravity (9.81001 ms-2 to 5 decimal places if you must know)h = Height of the objectv = Velocity. Some common places are: Technically hitting the ball harder (with a higher velocity) also increases the Torque, as this increase in velocity results in a direct increase in the acceleration of the ball. For a top player to execute strong topspin from FH and BH corners with FH and BH consecutively takes around 0.6 of a second. Educational videos, Knowledge base, Spin and Skills, Hopes Program, Expert’s Corner, training camp opportunities, mentorship program for coaches, subscribe to … If you wish to flick more safely, with a higher margin then this will require playing the stroke more slowly. With a few simple techniques, you can learn to master the table tennis serve. A change to more symmetrical play requires that the BH topspin be of the same quality as the FH. - Topspin, backspin or counter-hitting with well judged (and controlled) speed. Strong loop players will inevitably use the cross-step to reach the wide ball and defenders should train at moving in and out. The Forehand Loop is the most dominate shot in the sport of table tennis, and this lesson explains the mechanics from point of contact to footwork. Game Time and Timing Regulations 1. BUT, the 38mm ball is faster than the 40mm ball because the increase in the radius results in an increase in the wind resistance, thus slowing down the 40mm ball. Otherwise there will be a clear ‘braking’ effect after the bounce and the ball will slow, kick up a little and hang in the air (it can often kick up above the absolute line of sight). However, for doubles play there are a few subtle variations to the rules of table tennis. The type of spin put on the ball affects its trajectory in the air, as well as how it bounces. In the case of strong backspin the trajectory will veer upwards - here the power of the spin is stronger than gravity. In table tennis doubles, you do have to serve diagonally and always from your right-hand half to your opponents right-hand half. Technically we respond faster to an audio stimulus than a visual stimulus, 0.14 of a second compared with 0.18 of a second respectively. The time frame is approximately 0.38 seconds for a backspin or float serve but this can be reduced in the case of strong topspin. Warming up involves 5-15 minutes of light physical activity to elevate your heart rate and make your muscles warmer. Site users will note that we now have short stories for sale. This can depend on different floor coverings, lighting, acoustics, heat and cold or just the size of the room. Is it possible to play the ball around the net so that it does not bounce off? The result will be a bounce of less than 70% of the highest point in the trajectory, with a lesser spin but an increased speed (in the range of some 15 - 20%). However to do the same with just the FH wing will take almost 1.0 second. Often they have less time to move and to react between shots. Racket recovery is particularly crucial and it’s vital that the racket returns to the neutral position after each stroke so that you are ready to play FH or BH on the next ball. As F = ma, an increase in a leads to a direct increase in F, which in turn leads to a direct increase in Torque. Also overall their physical capabilities can be reckoned as between 15 - 30% lower than the male. Website by Look Lively Web Design Ltd, To Walk on Water You need first to get out of the Boat, The Radius of the Stroke and Angular Velocity. Personally, I can't, but it wouldn't surprise me that elite players can. Also flicks against backspin can use the spin already on the ball and will result in a low dipping shot - long, fast service returns over 8.5 m/second will slow due to air resistance and this again helps when using topspin. However no amount of training can increase the power of the flick beyond what the natural laws allow. If the stroke is not played absolutely cleanly then strong vibrations can be created in the blade with ensuing energy losses. However there is nothing to stop any player only using those patterns which give most economy of movement. We don’t always experience this on the table as we often play with care against the short serve, however even a small lack of touch can lead to a ball in the net or a high return. Flow of the match Sidespin has the rotational values at right angles to the table’s surface which means directly that as the point of the axis is in contact with the table, there is little or no loss of spin. In elite levels of the sport, even being the smallest fraction of a second (1/1000ths) faster starts to make a difference. This is because the mass and energy terms are both directly proportional to the Energy. European players on the other hand take the ball at ‘peak’ or after the top of the bounce. I said that the ball can only hit the table from the top, so it has to bounce back up. Perhaps here a warning should be issued to women trying to use the FH over the whole table as some top men do. A right- and left-handed player complement each other well in this situation as both can often use the FH most of the time. The blade also has its part to play and even under the rubber and sponge it can deform against a hard hit. Use small movements over the table and the large action further back where you require more power and precision of placement. In tennis, squash and badminton you must serve diagonally but in table tennis singles you can serve wherever you like. In the case of a passive stroke where the racket scarcely moves then the effect of the spin against the surface will be extreme. Here you have the chance to kill absolutely flat and angle the ball well as you are closer to the net - the opponent has very limited time to react. The float ball will lose speed after the bounce but will acquire a weak topspin due to the bottom part of the ball being held by the table and the top part rolling forward (Diagram F). There is a difference in this time between an audio stimulus and visual stimulus. Equally such insight gives perception into one’s own capabilities and how these should develop. In the Philippines, it also fast becoming a popular sport. He wrote the eBook, "How to Win at Table Tennis.". Important Table Tennis Rules for Ping-Pong Beginners, Maximizing the spin on the ball. Therefore, if you can work out EVERYTHING about the shot you need to just by hearing it strike the racket, you're 0.04 or four one-hundredths of a second faster than anyone else who has ever played table tennis before. Killing the descending ball is also quite safe (3) but as you make contact from further back, you have less of the table to aim at and again the opponent has more time even though the trajectory will be flatter. Similar to P but subtly different)s = Displacement (this essentially translates to Distance, except under certain circumstances)m = Mass (weight of the ball, fixed at 2.7g)a = Acceleration (change in velocity over a given time period)v = Velocity (speed of the shot)u = Initial Velocity (how fast the ball is hit at you)T = Torque (The amount of Turning Force that is applied)r = Radius (the length from the middle of a circle, to the perimeter.). We should also look at the scenario where we face high lobbed balls. However with the modern game both close and deep, movements which retain a square position are preferable. Often in the boy’s game even from an early age it is a good idea to work with topspin as this gives high speed and also a high level of safety. In table tennis you dont need to play over the net, the ball just has to hit the other half of the table. In order to maximize the velocity, you have to hit the ball as hard as you can. T = rFTorque is a Force that occurs when it is applied at an angle around a fixed point. A loop against a sidespin ball will result in a topspin return with a sidespin kick. I analyzed the strokes of top players for many years, I have read a lot about tips from top-players but most importantly, over the years I tried many of these things myself. Flicking straight and low over the net will result in a maximum speed of around 8.0m/second (28.8 k/hour) but this would drop to 7.0 m/second (25.2 k/hour) if you wished to have a 2cm cushion over the net. A tennis ball's spin barely decreases during flight, and actually increases when the ball hits the court. Then they have the opportunity of a low ball over the net and a lower ball after the bounce, as the ‘speed’ element tends to take precedence over the effect of the spin and the ball skids through off the table surface. A stroke can be executed with a large radius (a straight arm with forward movement) or with a small movement (flick of the wrist). In order to increase the Force, the Mass of the ball needs to be increased which is impossible, or the Acceleration needs to be increased. The result will be a bounce which can reach a height of approximately 70% of the trajectory’s high point in flight. Forget the figures to the left of the 0.1 and work with the right end of the curve. Start by holding the ball in your palm above and behind the table. This is the correct notation. The flick can often be angled harder and more easily than the counter hit as it is taken closer to the net and with less speed on the incoming ball. In the case of the ‘active’ racket a new motion energy will be established. When looping against a topspin ball the spin must be reversed which requires strong friction and a very closed racket. Table Tennis Ball Height Mechanics. The earliest surviving action game of Tennis on a table is a set made by David Foster, patented in England in 1890 (No.11037): Parlour Table Games, which included table versions of Lawn Tennis, Cricket and Football. The difference in usable reaction time gives Asian players a real advantage by preventing opponents from coordinating and organizing their best strategies. Both show how the ball loses speed over a distance. Other alternatives are the chop smash or a stop ball taken very early. In the case of strong topspin the ball will acquire forward energy and this rotational momentum will be converted into extra speed (Diagram G). Not only is the game easy to learn, but it is also extremely fun and requires little financial investment or space. This is one of the big factors in what separates the greats of table tennis, from the top A grade players. We always acknowledge your contributions! Once the ball has left the racket, the trajectory and direction is determined by the power and spin fed into the stroke. The ease and relative affordability of table tennis has made it one of the most popular sports in the world today in participation. This explains why a serve with a high ball toss is more dangerous than one tossed only 6 inches high. The time in a shot refers to the time the ball is in contact with the racket which is fixed at approximately 0.003 seconds. These aspects mean that the opponent has to cover more of the table and more ground in a lesser time and has to react at a higher speed (the time frame can more than halve). Good players (even average players like myself) can still deduce a lot of what the opposition is doing, simply by listening to the noise the ball makes when it contacts the bat. The reason it doesn't continue forever is due to air resistance, in the form of friction, and the fact that the collision of the ball and the ground isn't perfectly elastic (some of the ball's kinetic energy is converted to heat, when it impacts with the ground, and there is also some friction between the floor and the ball). However in spite of this often the peak of the arc is higher and the ball can easily kick up after the bounce (there is also a reduction of speed at this stage) above the dangerous ‘absolute line of sight’, which leaves the defender open to a flat hit kill. There are a handful of formulae that are used, which a man called Sir Isaac Newton derived in his monumental work Philosophae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. E = mghThis is a representation of Potential Energy. This lesson explains how to implement the correct stroke mechanics for the table tennis pivot, which allows you to expand the scope of your forehand attack. Take the second formula as an example, W = Fs This is expressed as W = F multiplied by s or W = F x s. Where:P = Power (The amount of oomph that is applied)W = Work (The amount of energy that is consumed)t = Time (Length of time the Power is applied for)F = Force (Basically the amount of grunt the shot has. In the Laws of Table Tennis, Law 2.6.4 states: 2.6.4 From the start of service until it is struck, the ball shall be above the level of the playing surface and behind the server's end line, and it shall not be hidden from the receiver by the server or his doubles partner and by anything they wear or carry. If you assume that two top players take the ball about 20 - 25cms off the end of the table then in a rally the ball would reach average speeds of around 12 — 14 m/second (43.2 - 50.4 kms per hour, straight and diagonal respectively). View lesson. All you need is a table, a net, a ball and a racket to get started. 10. My friend and I were arguing about this. A sharper 'pock' will tell you that the ball has been struck quite solidly, and will also tell you that they're using a thin rubber. The total time for a short serve can be as long as 0.6 seconds compared with the 0.4 for a long fast serve. It is necessary to place the ball in an advantageous position for your partner. Officials are volunteers who give their time to officiate at table tennis competitions and events. In that case, you can drop a feather and a brick, and the two will strike the ground simultaneously. I am a lower level league type player and I need some pointers on how to develop my loop. Find table tennis lesson plans and teaching resources. It is obviously important that the outer surface of the rubber has high friction, while the sponge can vary in hardness depending on whether the player needs more spin or speed. With lots of training and lots of practice, this can be reduced to 0.18 of a second. Therefore, in order to increase the Work done, the second equation must be examined: If the amount of Force is increased, then the Work coefficient is increased. This means that the faster the ball is spinning the higher the, Unwinding the body when playing a powerful shot such as a. Most players for a start will want to cover around 60 - 65% of the table with the FH side as they can reach further on this wing, and 35 - 40% with the BH. If in our modern fast game you are attacked hard and have no time, then you must be satisfied with the block return. The negative arc places much higher demands on exact timing. FH play over the whole table is asymmetrical (by this we mean one-sided and unbalanced movement). If you are missing half of your shots and have no control over your placement of the ball you’ll spend most of your time picking the ball up off the floor. Halving the speed to 4.25 m/second (15.3 k/hour) would bring about a reduction in air resistance to around one quarter of gravity. This represents the ability of the object in question to use Energy. The loop is usually executed with maximum racket speed and as thin a contact as possible. The positive arc follows the outgoing trajectory of the ball much more closely and as a result has a higher safety margin. The dominance of the Asian players over the years has occurred primarily because they take the ball early, just after the bounce. ITTF has set certain rules for the ball’s dimension and weight. Symmetrical play is clearly superior from the point of view of economy of movement, the only downside being that the BH topspin is generally less powerful than the FH. All games will be played at UREC Table Tennis tables. The Energy gained by the high toss can be converted to spin or speed when struck by the racket. The color might vary depending on the color of table as well as surroundings. Explosive speed is an inherited characteristic and players who don’t have it are rather limited in what they can do to train up this aspect. The trajectory itself is determined by gravity, the air resistance and the influence of the spin. The lifting movement (attacking a ball lower than net height) sets the limit and this can only be overcome by the creation of more topspin. With access to information on time, distances and speed (in relation to the ball) one can easily move into the optimum position to make the best use of time and pressure the opponent. To play ping pong, also known as table tennis, have each player or pair of players stand at opposite ends of the table, and flip a coin to determine who will serve first. However the difficulty in switching from topspin to smash often means that many players prefer to spin even in this ‘high ball’ situation. From a biological perspective, there are limits to how fast the body can react to a stimulus. A competitive game of table tennis is played to the best of five or seven games. As of 2001 the aim of the game is to score 11 points (it was previously 21) by outmanoeuvring your opponent into either hitting the ball into the net, hitting it off the table or missing it completely. BASIC RULES OF TABLE TENNIS AS PER THE ITTF. There are essentially two basic positions to learn – the forehand and the backhand. When players talk about a ‘hall’ being slow or fast this is a subjective experience. a racket:composed of a blade and 2 rubbers. Table Tennis became the number one racket game in China, Japan And United States. A. However, as the initial velocity is coming towards you, its value is negative. The ball therefore comes through with maximum retained spin. The energy which one imparts to the stroke, the motion energy, can be of two types, rotational or speed value. The effect which will occur between the ball and the table is partially because of the bounce N (impact speed and angle) and the spin T (amount and type). N = Normal power which consists of the bounce and the speed of the ball and T = Tangential power which depends on the spin and the frictional qualities of the racket. The first player to get to 11 points in a game is the winner. The weight of the ball can vary by as much as 0.5% depending on whether you play in a position near the poles or in a locality on the equator. What makes table tennis so popular is the ease of which to pick it up. With the help of topspin players can have a comfortable margin for error, a lower trajectory and a lower bounce on the opponent’s side of the table. Below the absolute line of sight the speed element in all no spin or backspin balls will be limited as all such balls will require an arc and some margin for error will be needed in the stroke. However for those who want to work with the ‘tennis’ BH it’s important that they have the same positive arc on both wings and don’t need to change from one to the other. With lots of training and lots of practise, this can be reduced to 0.18 of a second. Air resistance is always against the direction of travel and its effect is strongly influenced by the speed of the ball. If you want to conduct an experiment (you can make quite a bit of money out of this 'trick'), try dropping a golf ball and a table tennis ball from the same height and see which hits the ground first. With a speed of 8.5 m/second (30.6 k/hour, 19.125 mph.) Only the results of Energy can be observed. From table tennis lesson plans worksheets to table tennis mechanics videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. If defenders can introduce a topspin ball back from the table then this is a highly desirable variation, especially sometimes with sidespin. The three most common ways to hit a tennis ball are flat (no spin), with topspin, or sliced (hit with underspin/backspin). A lesson with Table Tennis Coach. Often it can be a question of the ball ‘sliding’ through. The speed of the ball’s movement forwards will increase. In the case of the ball’s contact with the racket we are concerned with two types of power. The playing surface shall not include the vertical sides of the tabletop. A proper warm up is necessary before starting play. In the case of topspin, gravity and the influence of the spin work together giving a more arced trajectory (See Diagram C). The trajectory itself is determined by gravity, the … Generally we can say that half the racket speed contributes to spin and the other half to speed. In the case of the safe 2.0 cms over the net stroke, speeds would be around 11.0 and 12.5 m/second.
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